“We have demonstrated that the validity of psychological tests is comparable to the validity of medical tests” –Meyer et al.
How accurate are psychological tests? Are they accurate enough to use in diagnosis? Sometimes psychological tests don’t seem as accurate because they don’t feel the same as a blood test or a brain scan. However, a thought-provoking study evaluated the accuracy of psychological tests in comparison to common medical tests.
Psychological Assessment Validity
A group of researchers, led by Gregory Meyer, gathered data from more than 125 pieces of research that looked at the accuracy of different psychological and medical tests. Each test was evaluated by the relationship between the test and the disease or disorder that test is trying to measure. For example, you could evaluate the relationship between a positive mammogram finding and actual instances of breast cancer. Although mammograms are intended to accurately find breast cancer every time, they don’t always succeed. The more often the mammogram is successful, the greater the tests accuracy.
Tests I Use IN My Psychological Assessments
I was interested to see the strength of some of the psychological tests I use in my practice and how they measured up to familiar medical tests. The MMPI is a common personality test that I often use to help with diagnosis of different psychological disorders like depression, anxiety, schizophrenia etc. This test was more accurate than a home pregnancy test.
Another common test that I use is the WAIS, which is an IQ test for adults. I often give this test to adults who are wondering if they have a learning disorder or perhaps as part of an adult ADHD assessment. It turns out that this test is about as accurate as a dental x-ray looking for cavities.
I sometimes use neuropsychological tests, which are good for screening for issues like dementia. It turns out that these tests were more accurate in identifying dementia than using an MRI.
Importance of Accurate Diagnosis
Psychological tests are important because it is often very challenging to provide an accurate diagnosis. It is difficult because many disorders have many of the same symptoms, it can be hard to be aware of all potential symptoms, and it can be hard to figure all of this out and explain it in a short medical appointment.
One of the reasons an accurate diagnosis is important is because the medical treatments for different psychological issues can be very different. For example, ADHD can often be confused with Bipolar. Unfortunately, if you give someone with bipolar an ADHD medication, they have have a negative reaction.
The importance of these psychological tests is reinforced for me every time I make an unexpected discovery. It is surprising how many individuals are surprised to discover that they have issues with anxiety. Others may have struggled with ADHD since they were young, never knowing the cause of school, work, and relationship issues. It is not just the patients who are surprised. Even after years of seeing different issues, psychological tests can show results that surprise me and make me grateful I am not relying solely on clinical interviews.
By Dr. Syras Derksen
Meyer, G., et al., (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 128-165.
At first, play therapy may sound like a strange concept, but researchers have found that playing is essential for human happiness. Adults might seem skeptical of sending their child to therapy to “just play,” but play therapists can help children just as much as a traditional therapist can help adults. Similar to counseling for adults, play therapy lets kids express themselves in a more comfortable way. Children often can’t find the words to explain how they’re feeling, so they can instead convey emotions while playing with toys.
What Happens During Play Therapy?
Therapist Susan Scheftel, Ph.D., says that she allows children to play with any of the toys she has in her office, including board games, dolls, blocks, and crayons. She says that watching children engage in play is often a look into what they’re feeling and that when kids can “play it out,” difficult behaviors often disappear. For example, a child who witnessed their parents fighting may create peaceful, happy scenes with dolls in a dollhouse. A child who might act out at school may become calm and patient after playing.
Scheftel does mention that every child is different, so bringing your child to more than one session of play therapy is crucial. It takes time to understand each child’s communication methods and for the child to feel comfortable with the therapist.
What Kind of Children do Therapists Work With?
Play therapy can be used for people of all ages, with even some adults embracing elements of play therapy, but most commonly it’s used for children between the ages of 3 and 12. Play therapists help children develop more appropriate behaviors to tough situations, manage their emotions, socialize properly with others, learn better coping skills, and express their own feelings.
Play therapy is also one of the most effective methods of helping children manage mental illnesses and learn how to cope with difficult life events. If your child has experienced a major life crisis or was diagnosed with a mental disorder such as depression or anxiety, they will likely experience the multiple benefits play therapy has to offer.
Pros of Play Therapy
Play therapy is often between just the therapist and the child, allowing them to freely express themselves without worrying about what their parents are thinking of their behavior. This type of private interaction can help build a child’s trust with their therapist and eventually get to the root of their difficulties. Parents who don’t understand why their child is experiencing certain behaviors or if their child’s problems are unknown, play therapy can be a huge help. In some cases, the family may be involved in sessions of play therapy, or the therapist may suggest how the family can use techniques of play therapy at home. The Association for Play Therapy also lists the following benefits play therapy can have on children:
Potential Negative Impacts of Play Therapy
Like with any profession, not all therapists are created equal. The experiences your child will have in play therapy will mostly depend on the abilities of their therapist. If your child doesn’t like the therapist or the therapist isn’t able to connect with your child, play therapy will seem ineffective. Take the time to shop around for a great therapist before scheduling an appointment for your child. Finding the right therapist for your child is the most important part, but there a few potential drawbacks of play therapy:
For more information on various therapy methods, visit Oakville Wellness Center.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
Mental illness can affect people of all ages, but the symptoms may appear differently in children. It can be difficult for parents to tell if their child is just “going through a phase,” because signs like irritability or mood swings may be chalked up to adolescent hormonal changes. Childhood depression can be “masked” by different behaviors, such as angry outbursts or defiance, so parents should learn the common warning signs of depression before dismissing uncharacteristic behaviors as a sign of normal adolescent development.
What Causes Childhood Depression?
Like most mental illnesses, depression can be caused by a variety of reasons, but there are some factors that may increase the risk of developing the illness. Research has shown that depression has a genetic component because children who have a parent with depression are 4 times more likely to be diagnosed with the disorder themselves. Other risk factors for depression include traumatic life events, a dysfunctional home life, financial troubles, or being bullied at school. Children with physical conditions and learning or cognitive problems are also more likely to suffer from depression as well.
Signs and Symptoms of Depression in Children
Children with depression experience many of the same symptoms that adults with depression have, but they may express these symptoms differently. Symptoms of depression can manifest in ways that might make your child appear to be lazy or unmotivated. For example, depression often causes people to experience fatigue, so if your child is often “too tired” to complete homework or other tasks, try not to assume they’re just procrastinating. Look for other symptoms of depression, such as:
What to Do If Your Child Shows Signs of Depression
If you’ve noticed that your child has displayed symptoms of depression for at least two weeks, schedule an appointment with your child’s doctor. While there is no specific test to diagnose depression, your doctor can rule out other potential causes for your child’s symptoms and use tools like questionnaires to get a better understanding of your child’s condition. During the appointment, the doctor will probably do a complete physical check-up and may ask to talk to your child alone.
If your child receives a diagnosis of depression or a similar mood disorder, your child’s doctor will likely have several different resources and treatment options for you to consider. Psychotherapy is recommended for most children suffering from depression because a well-qualified therapist can help them understand their feelings and learn how to manage their symptoms. Your child’s doctor may also suggest antidepressants because depression is best treated with both therapy and medication.
Warning Signs of Suicidal Behavior
Although it’s rare, children under the age of 12 may attempt suicide. Children may be more at risk for suicidal behavior if they’ve experienced violence, abuse, or have a family history of alcoholism. Some red flags that your child might be suicidal include:
How You Can Help
Childhood depression might improve with just therapy and medication, but having family support can make a huge difference in your child’s mental health. Depressive symptoms can last for months and your child might need to try different medications and therapists before finding the right fit for them. Know that there is no “quick fix” for depression, or any other mental illness, but you can help your child combat depression by:
For more information and guidance, visit Dr. Syras Derksen or Oakville Wellness Center.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
Having a baby is a complete overhaul of your life. Such a big change is enough to stress out even the most prepared of us. Add on top of that the sleep deprivation and chaotic hormone changes and many new moms find themselves feeling a little down at times. It’s completely normal and extremely common. In fact, this phenomenon has its own name: the baby blues.
The Baby Blues
Most mothers experience at least some symptoms of depression following the birth of their child. The following are not uncommon experiences for new mothers.
If the baby blues are going to hit you, it’s likely to begin a day or two after childbirth. The exact causes of the baby blues are not fully understood, but it is thought to be the combination of the extreme hormone variations that come with childbirth, coupled with stress and lack of sleep.
The baby blues are regarded as normal and unconcerning. The symptoms can usually be minimized by a healthy diet, some exercise, and a few hours of quality relaxation time. And they should clear up in a couple of weeks.
Postpartum Depression: when the baby blues are unmanageable or last too long
It can be tricky to differentiate the normal ups and downs of postpartum life from postpartum depression, at least at first. The biggest indicator that your baby blues are actually depression is the duration of their stay. If it’s been significantly longer than two weeks and the symptoms are still persisting, then the situation is no longer normal. The other big warning flag that your baby blues are something more serious is if they are unmitigatable. If you’re feeling like you can’t cope or your symptoms are interfering with your ability to take care of your baby or yourself, then what you are going through may be something more serious than the expected baby blues.
Symptoms of Postpartum Depression
The symptoms of postpartum depression overlap greatly with the baby blues, but there are some unique identifiers as well.
With postpartum depression there is also usually a constant fear of being an inadequate parent that intertwines itself with all the other symptoms. While it’s normal to worry about your child and be a little judgemental of yourself, it is cause for concern if you can’t seem to see anything positive about how you and your baby are doing together.
Postpartum depression may not be immediate. It could creep up anytime in the first year, so don’t avoid getting help just because it’s been “too long” for your symptoms to be postpartum depression.
Treating Postpartum Depression
The biggest mistake people make is waiting too long to talk to a doctor or psychologist. Schedule an appointment and go in as soon as you think your depression is more than just the “normal” amount. Follow these steps to get the best help possible from your physician.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
Managing and coping with dyslexia in school is a challenge for many students, but what about the challenges adults with dyslexia face? After graduating high school, there aren’t as many resources for adults with dyslexia, and they might worry about how they’ll manage college or responsibilities in the workplace. If you have dyslexia, or think you may have undiagnosed dyslexia, you may be relieved to hear that there are options available to help make your life a little easier.
Dyslexia in Higher Education
At the Yale Center For Dyslexia And Creativity, researchers asked college students with dyslexia what to do in order to succeed and thrive in higher education, and their answers could put your mind at ease if you’re planning to attend college. A few of their best tips include:
Dyslexia in the Workplace
No matter what career path you’re pursuing, there’s always going to be some reading and writing involved. Adults with dyslexia may also find it challenging to stay organized, remember important information, and manage their time while at work. However, there are some ways to manage your dyslexia and avoid getting overwhelmed in the workplace:
Common Symptoms of Dyslexia in Adults
Dyslexia affects about 1 out of 10 individuals, yet many adults have never been diagnosed. They may have done well hiding their dyslexia throughout their school years, or only had mild symptoms. When those with dyslexia get older, most have developed strategies to help them read and write, but they may deal with other symptoms such as:
If you believe you could have undiagnosed dyslexia, visit your doctor for an assessment.
What Resources are Available?
If you have a diagnosis of dyslexia, you can request accommodations at school and in the workplace. A formal diagnosis ensures that you can take the time you need to complete exams in college and be successful at work. There are also free resources online to help you learn how to read and write more effectively. With the help of technology, workplace accommodations, and college writing centers, adults with dyslexia can feel confident and prepared for their future.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
Dyslexia is defined as a learning disorder that causes individuals to have trouble processing words. It can range in severity, but those that have it usually have some difficulty reading, writing, spelling, or speaking clearly.
Although it’s classified as a learning disorder, it’s important to note that having dyslexia doesn’t mean a person is less intelligent. People with dyslexia are just as bright as others, and with the right support, signs of dyslexia can significantly lessen.
Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia
It’s estimated that 5-10% of students have some symptoms of dyslexia, but signs may go unnoticed until the child begins school. A teacher might even be the first one to notice dyslexic symptoms in your child! For grade school students, common signs include:
In some cases, signs of dyslexia may appear as early as preschool or kindergarten. Because dyslexia can affect language skills, some toddlers may not learn how to speak as quickly as other children. Other signs to look for in preschoolers include:
What to Do If Your Child Shows Signs of Dyslexia
It’s important to have testing done by a professional if you believe your child might have undiagnosed dyslexia. Either a private psychologist or your child’s school psychologist can perform an evaluation and give you an accurate diagnosis, treatment options, and other information. If your child is diagnosed with dyslexia, here are some ways you can help:
Importance of an Evaluation
If you’re hesitant to bring your young child in for an evaluation, psychologists recommend that it’s better to intervene early before your child risks failing classes or falling behind in school. Noticing signs early in childhood and having them tested has three important benefits:
For assistance with your child’s educational goals, please visit Dr. Syras Derksen today.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
If your child has been bringing home bad test grades, or excels at some subjects while doing poorly in others, you might be at a loss for what to do. Trying to convince them to do their homework can become a daily battle, or they might refuse to let you help them at all.
If you feel helpless, you’re not alone. Millions of parents have expressed their concerns with their child’s academic performance. The good news is that there are many ways you can help, and plenty of resources are available. In some cases, you may find that there’s a medical reason that explains your child’s difficulty with learning. In any case, once you understand what is contributing to your child’s academic struggles, you will be able to better assist them in making meaningful improvements. Read on to learn more.
How You Can Help
As a parent, you’re the biggest influence on your child. It’s important that you show interest in how their day at school went, but more importantly, keep a consistent routine for your child. Make sure they eat nutritious meals, get enough sleep, and have time to play. No child will be able to focus properly in school if they’re hungry, tired, or hyper. Other ways you can help include:
If your child resists help from you or you feel like they need extra assistance, many parents look into after-school options. Depending on your child’s difficulties or needs, there are a few different options for after-school support:
Signs of Learning Disabilities
It’s estimated that about 30% of school-age children struggle on some level with reading or learning, and 7% of these students become diagnosed with learning disabilities. They can be difficult to notice because children might try to hide how much they struggle. However, some common signs of learning disabilities include:
If you suspect your child might have a learning disability, talk to your child’s doctor or psychologist. Only a professional can accurately diagnose your child, and they can refer you to resources that can help your child succeed.
Schedule Vision and Hearing Checks
Sometimes, a child’s difficulties in school can be directly caused by difficulty seeing the classroom board or hearing their teacher’s instructions. Auditory and vision problems can arise at any point in a person’s life, and children should get regular screenings from a pediatrician. Your child might simply need glasses in order to do better academically!
However, although some kinds of hearing problems are found when a child is a newborn, hearing loss can occur later in life due to exposure to loud noises, trauma, infections, or medications. 15 out of 1,000 children under age 18 have some degree of hearing loss, according to nurse Sue Griffard. If your child is found to have hearing problems, there are numerous ways to help them, such as cochlear implants, certain procedures or therapies, and training in sign language or lip reading.
If your child is frequently upset or discouraged by his experiences in school, therapists are available to help them manage feelings, gain confidence, and develop healthy coping skills. Reach out to our experts at Oakville Wellness Center for more information and further assistance.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
Fine motor skills involve coordinating the eyes with small movements and muscles. Many of the most common daily activities, such as holding a toothbrush or using a spoon, require good fine motor skills. Young toddlers often struggle with fine motor skills at first but quickly improve with encouragement and practice.
Typical Development of Fine Motor Skills
Children go through many rapid changes and developments during the first several years of their life, and each child will develop at their own pace. If your child is healthy and meeting other developmental milestones, there’s probably no reason to worry if they can’t get the hang of certain tasks as quickly as other children. To make sure your child is on track with their development, some of the basic fine motor skills a child should have by the time they turn 3 include:
Signs of Fine Motor Skill Difficulties
It can take some time for children to learn all the different types of skills we usually take for granted, and some tasks can be harder to grasp than others. But if your child seems to be struggling with several different types of activities involving fine motor skills, it might be a sign of developmental coordination disorder, also known as dyspraxia. Signs of motor skill difficulties might not appear until your child is in preschool or kindergarten because these troubles often become more apparent in the classroom. Your child may struggle with activities such as:
Ongoing trouble with fine motor skills can lead to bigger problems as your child grows up. If your child is unable to write legibly or struggles to complete homework assignments because writing is too challenging for them, this may cause their grades and self esteem to suffer. They might compare themselves to their classmates and wonder why they’re not able to do the same activities as well. Therefore, it’s crucial to schedule an appointment with your child’s doctor if you suspect they might have a developmental coordination disorder. The doctor can give your child an accurate diagnosis, and will likely recommend occupational therapy or other resources to help your child succeed.
Treatments for Improving Fine Motor Skills
If your child receives a diagnosis of dyspraxia, rest assured that there are many treatment options for your child. Although there is no cure for this particular disorder, early intervention and treatment can help lessen your child’s difficulties with everyday tasks and improve their confidence. Some of these treatment options include:
Fun Ways to Develop Your Child’s Fine Motor Skills at Home
You should always encourage your child to do things involving fine motor skills on their own, but step in to help if your child becomes fatigued or overly frustrated. To make practicing their motor skills fun, you can do a variety of different activities at home with your child. Here are just a few fun ideas for you to consider:
For more guidance, visit Oakville Wellness Center or Dr. Syras Derksen.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen
It can feel like a daily battle when your child doesn’t listen to you or flat-out refuses to obey your requests. Even the sweetest and most well-behaved children can behave defiantly and push you to the limits of your patience. In order to keep peace at home, help your child be successful at school, and keep yourself sane, you first need to take care of yourself.
How to Stay Calm Amidst Defiant Behavior
When your child is screaming at you, staying calm can be a huge challenge. You might be tempted to start yelling as well, but clinical director Emily McNeil says that more yelling will do nothing but escalate the situation. McNeil says, "It's neurobiologically impossible for a child to be more regulated than his parent.” She offers a few tips for parents to keep their cool when handling hot-headed children:
Steps for Managing Defiant Behavior
Once you feel calm and collected, then you can start to effectively managing your child’s behavior and disciplining them appropriately. Many parents feel at a loss when it comes to disciplining their defiant child because they might simply ignore the parent’s instructions. To regain control of your child, school psychologist Rachel Wise shares some of her best advice that she’s utilized during her 18 years of work:
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Occasional defiant behavior is to be expected when raising children. However, if your child has been having defiant behavior for months and they are easily annoyed, hostile, or argumentative, they might have a disorder known as oppositional defiant disorder, or ODD.
ODD is described as a constant pattern of “defiance, negativity, and hostility” that lasts for at least 6 months. Some signs of this disorder include frequent outbursts, excessive arguing, refusing to follow rules, and lying. If you believe your child could have ODD, talk with your child’s doctor to explore treatment options such as family therapy or parent management training.
By: Dr. Syras Derksen